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Written by Oleksandr Gavenko (AKA gavenkoa), compiled on 2017-01-30 from rev ccaa2f364422+.


Setup git.


For Etch Degian release use git-core package from backports, old 1.4 version of git very dumb compared to new version 1.5:

$ sudo apt-get install git-core

After install setup some options:

$ git config --global user.name "Oleksandr Gavenko"
$ git config --global user.mail "gavenkoa@gmail.com"
$ cat ~/.gitconfig
  name = Oleksandr Gavenko
  mail = gavenkoa@gmail.com


$ setup.exe -p git

git over proxy.

Only http:// protocol support proxy (not git://):

$ export http_proxy="http://username:password@proxy:port/"
$ git clone http://github.com/$user/$proj.git $proj

You can store proxy settings under repository local config file:

$ git config http.proxy http://$user:$passwd@$ip:$port

Start your project.

Setup proj space on fs:

$ mkdir proj
$ cd proj
$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/user/tmp/proj/.git/
$ ls -a
. .. .git

Add file, make changes, commit all:

$ emacs Makefile
... C-x C-c
$ emacs app.c
... C-x C-c
$ git add Makefile app.c
$ git status
# On branch master
# Initial commit
# Changes to be committed:
#   (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage)
#       new file: Makefile
#       new file: app.c

or just:

$ git add .

Commit newlly added file:

$ git commit
... Write message log ...
Created initial commit 2169263: My first commit massage.
 1 files changed, 4 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 app.c

Undo tracking added file.

You do:

$ git add badfile
$ git status
# On branch master
# Changes to be committed:
#   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
#       new file:   badfile

To stop tracking badfile do:

$ git rm --cached badfile
$ git status
# On branch master
# Untracked files:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
#       file
nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)


$ git reset badfile

Doing changes.

$ printf "clean:\n<TAB>rm $(wildcard *.o)\n" >>Makefile
$ git diff
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e84f7e9..cd2438a 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -1,2 +1,5 @@
        @echo XXX
        exit 1
+       rm -f *.o
  $ git add Makefile
  $ git commit -m "Added clean target."
Created commit 11272b9: Added clean target.
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 file

or just:

$ git commit -a -m "Added clean target."

git analog of 'hg incoming'.

git does not directly support such feature. You can emulate it by:

$ git fetch
$ git log master..origin/master   # or just '..origin/master'

By previous commands you grab changes from remote server! You can apply them:

$ git merge

git analog of 'hg outgoing'.

git does not directly support such feature. You can emulate it by:

$ git fetch
$ git log origin/master..master   # or just 'origin/master..'

git analog of 'hg glog'.

$ git log --all --graph

Add alias:

glog = log --all --graph

Git analog of 'hg rollback'.

To edit commit message of last commit:

$ git commit --amend -m "$MSG"

To edit messages of old commits starting from $REV:

$ git rebase -i $REV

Git analog of 'hg root'.

$ git rev-parse --show-toplevel

Debug git network operation.

Git uses libcurl for network operation:

$ git ...

Push new repo to remote.

$ mkdir $REPO
$ cd $REPO
$ git init
$ git add .
$ git commit -m "Initial commit"
$ git remote add origin https://$USER:$PASS@$HOST/$REPO
$ git push -u origin master

Show heads in branch.

$ git show-ref --heads -s

Search string in file

To search string in all or specific files or working copy:

$ git grep $PATT
$ git grep -i $PATT -- '*.[ch]'

To search in all history:

$ git log -S$PATT
$ git log -G$PATT
$ git grep -i PATT $(git rev-list --all) -- '*.[ch]'

Find most recent tag for revision.

$ git describe $REV

Many projects set tags on branches rather then mainline (for example JS/CSS projects perform build and commit binary/minified files, which unnecessary for mainline history). In this case review simplifiied history by:

$ git log --graph --all --decorate --oneline --simplify-by-decoration

List tags with dates.

$ git log --tags --simplify-by-decoration --pretty="format:%ci %d"

Update to date.

$ git checkout 'master@{1979-02-26}'
$ git checkout 'master@{1979-02-26 18:30:00}'

Using git to work with SVN offline.

Prepare SVN and git utilities:

$ sudo apt-get svn git-core git-svn

Making SVN repo:

  $ cd $HOME/tmp
  $ svnadmin create svn-repo
  $ svn co file://$HOME/tmp/svn-repo svn-devel
  $ cd svn-devel
  $ mkdir tags trunk branches
  $ svn add *
A         branches
A         tags
A         trunk
  $ cd trunk/
  $ printf "all:\n  echo XXX\n" >Makefile
  $ printf "int main() {return 0;}" >main.c
  $ svn add *
  $ cd ..
  $ svn st
A      trunk
A      trunk/main.c
A      trunk/Makefile
A      branches
A      tags
  $ svn ci -m init
Adding         branches
Adding         tags
Adding         trunk
Adding         trunk/Makefile
Adding         trunk/main.c
Transmitting file data ..
  $ svn cp -m v0.0 file://$HOME/tmp/svn/trunk file://$HOME/tmp/svn/tags/v0.0
  $ svn cp -m v0.1 file://$HOME/tmp/svn/trunk file://$HOME/tmp/svn/branches/v0.1

Moving SVN changset to git repo:

  $ cd $HOME/tmp
  $ git svn init file://$HOME/tmp/svn git-repo
  $ ls -a
.  ..  .git
  $ git svn fetch
    A   trunk/main.c
    A   trunk/Makefile
W: +empty_dir: branches
W: +empty_dir: tags
r1 = 52ccd9882979dd53ec198dbac108783ec660410f (git-svn)
    A   tags/v0.0/main.c
    A   tags/v0.0/Makefile
r2 = 8ec8a772bb6f37ace56b3649066dc84e481ed427 (git-svn)
    M   trunk/Makefile
r3 = 2c169ff409ed504dd6a092b1e302beb3fd94871e (git-svn)
    A   branches/v0.1/main.c
    A   branches/v0.1/Makefile
r4 = e68d76f4ba6beea4b9059c1884c1f38ce10831a7 (git-svn)
    M   trunk/Makefile
r5 = cdde63974454b13ac53f2eeb201aa76c49fd875c (git-svn)
Checked out HEAD:
  file:///home/sasha/tmp/svn r5

or (in old git version):

$ git svn clone file://$HOME/tmp/svn git-repo

Making changes in svn:

  $ cd $HOME/tmp/svn-devel/trunk
  $ echo ".PHONY: clean" >>Makefile
  $ svn ci -m "Added clean to phony."
Sending        trunk/Makefile
Transmitting file data .
Committed revision 6.

Making committed in git:

  $ cd $HOME/tmp/git-repo/trunk
  $ echo ".PHONY: all" >>Makefile
  $ echo "int foo(int x) {return x+x;}" >>main.c
  $ git status
# On branch master
# Changed but not updated:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
#       modified:   Makefile
#       modified:   main.c
no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
  $ git commit -a -m "Bug fixed."
Created commit 222d399: Bug fixed.
 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

Getting changes from SVN to git:

  $ git svn rebase
    M   trunk/Makefile
r6 = 8165e9bfb38e9df09a7313d19606ec227629b670 (git-svn)
First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it...
Applying Bug fixed.
error: patch failed: trunk/Makefile:6
error: trunk/Makefile: patch does not apply
Using index info to reconstruct a base tree...
Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge...
Auto-merged trunk/Makefile
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in trunk/Makefile
Failed to merge in the changes.
Patch failed at 0001.

When you have resolved this problem run "git rebase --continue".
If you would prefer to skip this patch, instead run "git rebase --skip".
To restore the original branch and stop rebasing run "git rebase --abort".

rebase refs/remotes/git-svn: command returned error: 1
  $ git add Makefile
  $ git rebase --continue
Applying Bug fixed.

and return all from git to SVN:

  $ git svn dcommit
Committing to file:///home/sasha/tmp/svn ...
    M   trunk/Makefile
    M   trunk/main.c
Committed r7
    M   trunk/main.c
    M   trunk/Makefile
r7 = 68e782c8d06635f2db4dd69b9ca8599f99da22e2 (git-svn)
No changes between current HEAD and refs/remotes/git-svn
Resetting to the latest refs/remotes/git-svn

See what going to SVN repo:

  $ cd $HOME/tmp/svn-devel/trunk
  $ svn diff -r BASE:HEAD
Index: Makefile
--- Makefile    (working copy)
+++ Makefile    (revision 7)
@@ -6,4 +6,4 @@
 .o: .c
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $<

-.PHONY: clean
+.PHONY: all clean
Index: main.c
--- main.c  (working copy)
+++ main.c  (revision 7)
@@ -2,3 +2,4 @@
     return 0;
+int foo(int x) {return x+x;}
  $ svn up
U    Makefile
U    main.c
Updated to revision 7.


gitk - The git repository browser. See gitk(1).


$ sudo apt-get instal gitk


$ cd /path/to/git-repo
$ gitk