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Written by Oleksandr Gavenko (AKA gavenkoa), compiled on 2024-04-01 from rev 052223c22317.

Laser disk

What best DVD-R or DVD+R?

The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in 1997 vc DVD+R in 2002 by Sony.

DVD+R format was not an official DVD format until January 25, 2008.

DVD-R(W) and DVD+R(W) format are incompatible.

DVD-R(W) use amplitude modulation, DVD+R(W) use phase modulation, so more reliable.

On multi-session DVD-R(W) disk any session take up to 96 MB in time on DVD+R(W) every session take exactly 2 MB.

DVD+R(W) win!


What capacity of DVD?

Type Capacity
sectors 2,048B bytes GB GiB
DVD-R (SL) DVD+R (SL) DVD-R DL DVD+R DL 2,298,496 2,295,104 4,171,712 4,173,824 4,707,319,808 4,700,372,992 8,543,666,176 8,547,991,552 4.7 4.7 8.5 8.5 4.384 4.378 7.957 7.961


** Verbatim.

Archival Grade CD & DVD - for store critical data.

** TDK.

** Intenso.

What is the life expectancy of a CD-R?

Approximately 100 years under proper storage conditions (from TDK support).

How many times can I rewrite to a CD-RW?

A CD-RW disc can be erased and rewritten up to a 1,000 times. Reliability and performance will not decrease, even as the number of rewrites increase.

Make an ISO image

$ dd if=/dev/dvd of=dvd.iso  # for dvd
$ dd if=/dev/cdrom of=cd.iso # for cdrom
$ dd if=/dev/scd0 of=cd.iso  # if cdrom is scsi

$ mkisofs -o /tmp/cd.iso /tmp/directory/ # from file hierarchy

Burning tools

** cdrtools.

In 2006 build system of cdrtools changed and have CDDL, which incomputable with GPL.


** cdrkit.

Fully GPL alternative for cdrtools. Includes:


Installing under Debian:

$ sudo apt-get install wodim genisoimage

Cygwin (cdrecord is symlink to wodim, mkisofs is symlink to genisoimage, cdrkit contain only READMY):

$ setup.exe -p cdrkit,wodim,genisoimage

Make iso image:

$ genisoimage -A "<info>" -gui -J -R -o <img-file> <dir1> <dir2> ...

<info> is up to 128 bytes. -J adds Joliet directory records wich useful on Windows. -R adds the Rock Ridge protocol.

To test your image mount it (on Linux):

$ sudo mount -t iso9660 -o loop,ro <img-file> <mnt-point>

Burn iso image


xorriso copies file objects from POSIX compliant filesystems into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and allows session-wise manipulation of such filesystems. It can load the management information of existing ISO images and it writes the session results to optical media or to filesystem objects.

Vice versa xorriso is able to restore file objects from ISO 9660 filesystems.


ImgBurn is a lightweight CD / DVD / HD DVD / Blu-ray burning application that everyone should have in their toolkit!

For Windows 95/98/2000/XP/Vista/2008/7, work in Wine under Linux.

home page


Это бесплатная программа для записи CD и DVD, Blu-Ray и HD-DVD дисков. Она поддерживает запись и создание ISO-образов.

For Windows XP/Vista/2008/7. Require .NET >= version 2.0.

home page


$ sudo apt-get install mdf2iso
$ mdf2iso $IN.mdf


$ sudo apt-get install nrg2iso
$ nrg2iso  $IN.nrg $OUT.iso