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Written by Oleksandr Gavenko (AKA gavenkoa), compiled on 2019-01-03 from rev c44e4331713c.

LXC

LXC releases

https://discuss.linuxcontainers.org/tags/release
Announces of LXC & LXD releases.
https://discuss.linuxcontainers.org/t/lxc-3-0-0-has-been-released/1449
LXC 3.0.0 has been released.

Supported templates

https://github.com/lxc/lxc-templates
Old style template scripts for LXC (prefer distrobuilder).
https://github.com/lxc/distrobuilder
System container image builder for LXC and LXD.
https://brauner.github.io/2018/02/27/lxc-removes-legacy-template-build-system.html
Details about replacing template stripts.

Install LXC under Debian

$ sudo apt-get install lxc

Verify your host/kernel satisfy LXC requirements:

$ sudo lxc-checkconfig

To make network bridge install supplement packages:

$ sudo apt-get install bridge-utils dnsmasq

To bootstrap Debian dostro into container install:

$ sudo apt-get install debootstrap

To bring up network bridge edir /etc/default/lxc-net:

USE_LXC_BRIDGE="true"

LXC_ADDR="192.168.99.1"
LXC_NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
LXC_NETWORK="192.168.99.1/24"
LXC_DHCP_RANGE="192.168.99.100,192.168.99.200"
LXC_DHCP_MAX="20"

and start service:

$ sudo service lxc-net start

Create new container in LXC

Create container from template:

$ sudo lxc-create -t $TMPL -n $NAME -- $EXTRA_ARGS

Note

  • -t defines distro name
  • -n gives name for container for further referencing
  • everything after -- is passed to template script

Template name is based on file name from /usr/share/lxc/templates directory without lxc- prefix.

List available templates with:

$ ls -alh /usr/share/lxc/templates/

Examples of container creation command:

$ sudo lxc-create -t debian -n deb-sid --  -r sid --enable-non-free
$ sudo lxc-create -t debian -n deb-testing --  -r testing
$ sudo lxc-create -t debian -n deb-stable --  -r stable -a amd64

$ sudo lxc-create -t alpine -n alpine-3.7 --  -r 3.7

Each template has own options, which can be passed after --. To get help on template specific options run:

$ /usr/share/lxc/templates/lxc-ubuntu -h
$ /usr/share/lxc/templates/lxc-debian -h
$ /usr/share/lxc/templates/lxc-alpine -h
...

For Debian in order to use another miror:

$ MIRROR=http://httpredir.debian.org/debian sudo lxc-create -t debian -n debtest -- -r sid

Since LXC v3.0 sh-templates moved to separate project and only 4 are left supported:

$ lxc-create my-busybox -t busybox
$ lxc-create my-x -t download
$ lxc-create c1 -t local -- --metadata /path/to/meta.tar.xz --fstree /path/to/rootfs.tar.xz
$ lxc-create c2 -t oci -- --url docker://alpine

Put veth network configuration into container config /var/lib/lxc/$NAME/config:

lxc.network.type = veth
lxc.network.flags = up
lxc.network.link = lxcbr0
lxc.network.veth.pair = veth-stretch
lxc.network.name = veth-stretch
lxc.network.ipv4 = 192.168.99.12/24
lxc.network.ipv4.gateway = 192.168.99.1

Fix DNS resolution in container:

$ echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 | sudo tee /var/lib/lxc/$NAME/rootfs/etc/resolv.conf

LXC Container management

List available VMs:

$ sudo lxc-ls

Start VM:

$ sudo lxc-start -n $NAME

Safely stop VM (honoring init system):

$ sudo lxc-halt -n $NAME

Urgently stop VM:

$ sudo lxc-stop -n $NAME

Mark container to start on boot in /var/lib/lxc/$NAME/config:

lxc.start.auto = 1

Link containers in non standard location to take them in account:

$ ln -s /opt/lxc/$NAME /var/lib/lxc/$NAME

Run command in rinning container:

$ sudo lxc-attach -n $NAME-get update

Making snapshot

See lxc-snapshot(1).

List of snapshots:

$ sudo lxc-snapshot --list
$ sudo lxc-snapshot -n $NAME --list

Make a snapshot:

$ sudo lcx-halt -n $NAME
$ sudo lcx-snapshot -n $NAME

Restore from snapshot:

$ sudo lcx-halt -n $NAME
$ sudo lcx-snapshot -n $NAME -r $SNAPNAME