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Written by Oleksandr Gavenko (AKA gavenkoa), compiled on 2017-01-30 from rev ccaa2f364422+.

List hardware.

Linux hardware compatibility databases.

http://www.linux-drivers.org/
Links for various databases.
https://h-node.org/
Hardware database of devices that work with a fully free operating system.
http://linux-sound.org/hardware.html
Audio interfaces for Linux.
http://openbenchmarking.org/
Public result database from Phoronix Test Suite for Linux.

Distros list of supported hardware:

https://wiki.debian.org/InstallingDebianOn/
How to install, configure and use Debian on some specific hardware.
https://en.opensuse.org/Hardware
OpenSuse.
https://hardware.redhat.com/
RedHat.

List of supported video / graphics card / chipset card by Xorg:

http://xorg.freedesktop.org/wiki/Projects/Drivers/
graphics card / chipset

List of supported laptops/mobile:

http://www.linux-on-laptops.com/
  Reports on running Linux on notebook or laptop computers.
http://tuxmobil.org/
  Laptop/mobile support.

Printers:

http://www.openprinting.org/printers
List of printers.
http://www.openprinting.org/drivers
List of drivers.

LAN:

http://linux-wless.passys.nl/
Linux wireless LAN support.

List hardware under Linux.

Command line:

dmesg
Messages about detecting new hardware.
lshal -m
monitor for hardware changes
lspci
All PCI devices.
lspci -vvv
All PCI devices. Very verbose output.
sudo lspci -vvvnn
All PCI devices. Very verbose output with vendor and device codes as both numbers and names.
hwinfo --short
Overview of all hardware, as well as more detailed info.
lshw
Another program for listing hardware.
lshw -html | w3m -T text/html
Lists hardware with HTML output in the w3m web browser.
uptime
Current time elapsed since last reboot, users, and load average.
lsusb
USB buses and attached devices.
lsusb -vvv
USB buses and attached devices. Very verbose output.

GUI: hardinfo, lshw-gtk.

List hardware under Windows.

%WINDIR%\system32\msinfo32.exe
msinfo32
http://www.cpuid.com/softwares/cpu-z.html
cpu-z
%WINDIR%\system32\dxdiag.exe
DirectX Diagnostic Tool
%WINDIR%\system32\devmgmt.msc /s
Device Manager

List processors.

cat /proc/cpuinfo
All processors, clock speeds, flags, and more.
watch -d grep MHz /proc/cpuinfo
CPU MHz speed monitor.
cat /proc/loadavg
Processor load average for the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes.
top
Press C key to sort processes by CPU usage.
sudo powertop
CPU usage by processes, idle/freq/dev stats

List memory.

free
Total, used, and free memory.
free -m
Total, used, and free memory shown in MB.
cat /proc/meminfo
Amount of RAM and swap, and how much is being used for what.
top
Real-time memory consumption. Press M key to sort processes by memory usage.
$ cat /proc/meminfo
$ sudo lshw -class memory
$ sudo lshw -short -C memory
$ sudo dmidecode --type memory

$ sudo apt-get install i2c-tools
$ sudo modprobe eeprom
$ sudo decode-dimms

$ read-edid

Graphics card/GPU/DRM.

glxinfo
Details about OpenGL, the Xserver, and your graphics card.
glxinfo | grep direct
Do you have direct 3d rendering?
glxinfo | grep vendor
Graphics card vendor.
lspci | grep VGA
Specific graphics card model.
glxgears
A simple 3d benchmark, prints frame rate to the terminal.
xrandr
Supported display resolutions.
xdpyinfo
Utility for displaying information about an X server, monitor DPI, resolutions, etc.
xvinfo
Print out X-Video extension adaptor information.
xdriinfo
Query configuration information of DRI drivers.

GPU-z may be used under Windows.

Nvidia cards.

What cards present on system and what monitors managed by card:

$ sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
$ nvidia-settings

Memory usage, GPU utilization and temperature for Nvidia cards:

$ sudo apt-get install nvidia-smi
$ nvidia-smi

Intel cards.

$ sudo apt-get install intel-gpu-tools

Show top like statistics:

$ intel_gpu_top

Show GPU usage like time command:

$ intel_gpu_time $CMD

AMD/Radeon cards.

For fglrx driver:

$ aticonfig --odgc --odgt

Audio.

lspci | grep Audio
Audio controller.
aplay --list-devices
More audio device information.

Software versions.

cat /etc/issue
Current distribution and version.
apt-cache showpkg packagename
Packagename’s version and dependencies.
uname -r
Linux kernel version.
uname -a
All kernel details.

Networking.

lspci | grep Ethernet
Ethernet controllers.
lshw -class network
Hardware capabilities of network devices.
sudo ethtool eth0
Hardware capabilities of network device.
ethtool -i eth0
Driver info.
ip link show
List of netword devices and MAC addresses.
ip addr show
List of netword devices, assigned IP addresses and MAC addresses.
ifconfig
Networking interfaces, IP addresses, and more.

Hard disks.

df -H
Partitions, as well as their mount-points and usage in GB.
sudo fdisk -l
All partitions, their device names, and positions on disk.
hwinfo --disk or lshw -class disk
Disk hardware info.
smartctl
Show S.M.A.R.T. reports about disk heals.

Fan/temperature/voltage.

Detect available sensors:

$ sudo apt-get install lm-sensors
$ sudo sensors-detect

Load corresponding kernel module, like:

$ sudo modprobe coretemp

Check output:

$ sudo sensors

sensors uses /sys/class/hwmon/* hierarchy.

HDD temperature through SMART:

$ sudo hddtemp /dev/sd?

BIOS info.

Human readable string with BIOS.motheboard names:

$ dd if=/dev/mem bs=64k skip=15 count=1 | strings

Find out virtualization type.

$ sudo apt-get install virt-what
$ virt-what

$ sudo apt-get install imvirt
$ imvirt